Using MS Project Server for Resource Management

One of the consistent struggles of working in a “standalone” project management environment is the fact that you do not have visibility of the “total picture” associated with resources. Resource loading in MS Project provides visibility of resource utilization vs. capacity on your project – not across all resource commitments (e.g., other projects and operational activities). You can utilize the “max units %” to reflect that a resource is something less than 100% available to the project, but this information is only relevant if it is regularly reviewed and updated.

In my opinion, the most significant benefit associated with Enterprise Project Management tools such as MS Project Server, is providing enterprise wide visibility of planned resource utilization vs. capacity. As a by-product of maintaining resource loaded project and operational schedules within MS Project Server, up-to-date resource utilization information is available in a very flexible and easy to access and consume manner.

 

5 Benefits of Using MS Project Server for Resource Management

1. Consistent definition of resources – Maintaining the Global Resource Pool in MS Project Server ensures that resources are defined in a consistent manner across all projects. Without consistency it is difficult to efficiently roll-up resource utilization information from multiple projects. Key elements maintained in the Global Resource Pool are:

  • Resource Name – It is important to establish a standard format for resource names (e.g., first name, last name).
  • Role – The role field provides the ability to view groupings of resources that perform a similar function across projects (e.g., Business Analyst, SharePoint Developer).
  • Base Calendar – The calendar field establishes the appropriate calendar for the resource (e.g., non-working days, working hours).
  • Generic Resources – The generic resource flag provides the ability to create generic resources that are utilized for resource loading purposes prior to assigning a named resource to the project.
  • RBS / Team Name / Department – MS Project Server provides a lot of flexibility to define the attributes/hierarchy specific to your organization (RBS, departments, and teams).
  • Booking Type – This field is utilized to establish the default booking type for the resource assignment. “Committed” represents a firm commitment/assignment to the project, and “proposed” represents a future/planned assignment.
  • Current Max Units % – Max units represents the % resources are available for work that is scheduled in MS Project Server. This field is utilized to calculate the resource capacity displayed on the resource availability charts.
  • Rate – The rate fields establish the standard and overtime rates utilized for costing / billing purposes.

Below is a summary view of the Global Resource Pool. Views can be tailored to meet the needs of your organization in the same manner that views are created in SharePoint.

 

Below are screen shots of the details captured for each resource.

 

 

2. Understanding resource availability across multiple projects – The Resource Availability feature in MS Project Server provides very useful views of planned resource utilization vs. capacity. These views display resource utilization for specified periods (days, weeks, months) for each of the schedules maintained in MS Project Server. The views are available in both chart and table format (depicted below). In addition, you have the ability to view utilization for a single resource or a group of resources.

3. Visibility of Firm vs. Planned Resource Commitments – Within the “build team” function, you have the ability to specify whether resources are loaded into the schedule as firm commitments (committed) or planned future assignments (proposed). The proposed booking type is utilized for planning resource utilization at a high level for future projects/periods.

 

The chart below depicts including proposed hours (in addition to committed hours) in the resource availability view.

 

4. Ability View Availability for Resource Groups – MS Project Server provides the ability to select groups of resources to view total resource utilization vs. capacity for a specific role (e.g., business analysts). This feature is particularly helpful when you have resources that are interchangeable across projects.

The chart below depicts resource utilization vs. capacity by resource for the selected periods (days, weeks, months).

5. Ability to “Drill Down” to View Resource Utilization – From the resource availability views MS Project Server provides the ability to “drill down” to view the detail task assignments for a specific resource or group of resources. The resource assignment details provide resource and project managers with the information required to resolve specific “peaks” or “valleys” in resource utilization.

 

3 Critical Success Factors for Effective Resource Management

The following are 3 factors that are critical to realize the benefits of using MS Project Server for resource management within your project environment.

1. Resource Pool – Data captured in the resource pool must be defined and captured based upon the resource management needs of your organization. This success factor includes standard naming convention for resources, logical structure of the organization and team hierarchy, and meaningful definition of the project roles. These decisions drive how data is displayed within many of the resource management views.

2. Resource Capacity – The capacity line is driven from the Max Units % maintained for each resource. This percent must reflect the availability of the resource to be scheduled on the projects and operational activities maintained within the MS Project Server implementation. For example, if MS Project Server implementation does not include system support activities, then the Max Unit % should be reduced to reflect the time allocated to these activities for each resource. A process should be established for reviewing and updating this information on a regular basis (I recommend monthly or quarterly).

3. Resource Loaded Projects – The information associated with planned resource utilization on projects and operational activities is only as good as the accuracy and completeness of the resource loading within the individual project schedules. This is a very obvious statement, but I have seen many Enterprise Project Management implementations fail because the resource data within project schedules did not reflect reality. Coaching and mentoring of individual project managers is often required to ensure that project schedules are resource loaded and updated accurately throughout the project life cycle.

PM Foundations – Estimating and Loading Resources

One of the common pitfalls I often run across when reviewing project schedules is inadequate attention or diligence around the area of resource planning. Improper planning in this best practice area often leads to project schedules and budgets that may not be reasonable or manageable. The following summarizes the high level best practice areas associated with resource planning:

  • How to estimate the resource requirements for schedule activities.
  • How to load the resource assignments and work effort estimates into the project schedule.
  • How to perform resource usage analysis, and resource leveling techniques.
  • How to create the resource plan utilized to finalize resource assignments, and provide a key input to create the project budget

    For purposes of this post, I will focus on the first two — estimating resources and loading the resource assignments into the project schedule.

Resource Estimating:

There are two techniques for resource estimating – bottom up & resource allocation. Both techniques are valid, and each are more effective than the other in specific situations.

Bottom up Estimating:

The following steps describe the mechanics of this technique:

  1. Work with the team to estimate the work effort (hours) for each resource assigned to the activity.
  2. Enter the hours for each resource assigned to the activity within the Project Management tool.
  3. The Project Management tool computes the allocation % for the activities (based upon the hours and duration assigned to the activity).

When is this technique most effective:

  • The activity is complex, and the team needs to spend time to understand the details associated with the activity.
  • Experience with other projects is based more on actual hours of work effort.
  • Precision of the work effort is very important, and is worth the time to create a more accurate schedule.

Here is an example of how this technique works:

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Resource Allocation:

The following steps describe the mechanics of this technique:

  1. Group activities based upon allocation of resources (may be one to one, but more likely will have activities with the same allocation over some period of time).
  2. Assign allocation % for each resource assigned to the activity in the Project Management tool.
  3. The Project Management tool computes the number of hours of work effort for the activities (based upon the allocation % and duration estimated for the activity).

When this technique is most effective:

  • Details of the activity are not known, and therefore it is the duration estimate that is driving the resource estimates
  • Experience with other projects is based more on “how long it takes” vs. “how many hours of work”
  • Precision of the work effort estimates is not as important as developing a reasonable schedule

Here is an example of how this technique works:

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As depicted in this example, both techniques arrived at approximately the same resource needs (this certainly will not always be the case). However, the approach to arrive at the resource needs was very different and highly dependent on the situation and information available. For each set of activities within the schedule, it is important to decide on the appropriate approach to estimate and assign resources, and then gather the information required to determine resource requirements. In many cases the project manager will use a combination of the two approaches (#1 for more complex work effort driven activities, and #2 for more duration based activities).

Resource Loading:

Once the resource estimating process is complete, the mechanics of loading resources into the schedule is very straight forward. From the resource tab on the individual task, or from the resource column in the Gantt view (assuming you are using MS Project as your PM tool), the resources are added in the following manner (depending upon the approach selected):

1) Approach #1: Select the resource, enter the hours in the work column, and the % allocation will be computed.

2) Approach #2: Select the resource(s), enter the % in the units column, and the work hours will be computed.

Another key element associated with the resource loading process is the task type set-up for the activity. Use of different task types impacts the way the units (%), work and duration are re-calculated when any of these elements are changed. I always recommend use of fixed duration with an effort driven option as the default set-up. It allows work and units to fluctuate as you modify the timeline (duration). The table below describes the different behaviors within the project schedule, based upon the task type:

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When loading resources, a good check that you have the activities broken down to the appropriate level is whether or not you have direct accountability of resource assignments. If you have a lot of tasks with 2-3 people with a 10% allocation, you may not have the activities broken down to the appropriate level.

You want to avoid falling into the trap of loading activities into the schedule that are “indirect” in nature that are merely loaded to reflect usage of individual’s time on the project. Try to keep the schedule focused on “direct” project activities. There are other ways to reflect commitment to the project without putting “noise” in your schedule.

Resource Estimating & Loading Best Practices

In summary, the following are the best practices associated with the resource estimating & loading processes:

  • Use the resource estimating and loading approach that best fits the type of activities that are being planned
  • clip_image008

  • Do not add “noise” into the schedule by attempting to account for all hours expended on the project (activities in the project schedule should be limited to “direct” activities).
  • Set-up the schedule activities in a manner that drives the appropriate behavior when loading resources into the project schedule. I recommend fixed duration as the task type.

Note: I will be posting a blog in the near future on performing resource usage analysis and creating your resource plan.

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