Using MS Project Server for Resource Management

One of the consistent struggles of working in a “standalone” project management environment is the fact that you do not have visibility of the “total picture” associated with resources. Resource loading in MS Project provides visibility of resource utilization vs. capacity on your project – not across all resource commitments (e.g., other projects and operational activities). You can utilize the “max units %” to reflect that a resource is something less than 100% available to the project, but this information is only relevant if it is regularly reviewed and updated.

In my opinion, the most significant benefit associated with Enterprise Project Management tools such as MS Project Server, is providing enterprise wide visibility of planned resource utilization vs. capacity. As a by-product of maintaining resource loaded project and operational schedules within MS Project Server, up-to-date resource utilization information is available in a very flexible and easy to access and consume manner.

 

5 Benefits of Using MS Project Server for Resource Management

1. Consistent definition of resources – Maintaining the Global Resource Pool in MS Project Server ensures that resources are defined in a consistent manner across all projects. Without consistency it is difficult to efficiently roll-up resource utilization information from multiple projects. Key elements maintained in the Global Resource Pool are:

  • Resource Name – It is important to establish a standard format for resource names (e.g., first name, last name).
  • Role – The role field provides the ability to view groupings of resources that perform a similar function across projects (e.g., Business Analyst, SharePoint Developer).
  • Base Calendar – The calendar field establishes the appropriate calendar for the resource (e.g., non-working days, working hours).
  • Generic Resources – The generic resource flag provides the ability to create generic resources that are utilized for resource loading purposes prior to assigning a named resource to the project.
  • RBS / Team Name / Department – MS Project Server provides a lot of flexibility to define the attributes/hierarchy specific to your organization (RBS, departments, and teams).
  • Booking Type – This field is utilized to establish the default booking type for the resource assignment. “Committed” represents a firm commitment/assignment to the project, and “proposed” represents a future/planned assignment.
  • Current Max Units % – Max units represents the % resources are available for work that is scheduled in MS Project Server. This field is utilized to calculate the resource capacity displayed on the resource availability charts.
  • Rate – The rate fields establish the standard and overtime rates utilized for costing / billing purposes.

Below is a summary view of the Global Resource Pool. Views can be tailored to meet the needs of your organization in the same manner that views are created in SharePoint.

 

Below are screen shots of the details captured for each resource.

 

 

2. Understanding resource availability across multiple projects – The Resource Availability feature in MS Project Server provides very useful views of planned resource utilization vs. capacity. These views display resource utilization for specified periods (days, weeks, months) for each of the schedules maintained in MS Project Server. The views are available in both chart and table format (depicted below). In addition, you have the ability to view utilization for a single resource or a group of resources.

3. Visibility of Firm vs. Planned Resource Commitments – Within the “build team” function, you have the ability to specify whether resources are loaded into the schedule as firm commitments (committed) or planned future assignments (proposed). The proposed booking type is utilized for planning resource utilization at a high level for future projects/periods.

 

The chart below depicts including proposed hours (in addition to committed hours) in the resource availability view.

 

4. Ability View Availability for Resource Groups – MS Project Server provides the ability to select groups of resources to view total resource utilization vs. capacity for a specific role (e.g., business analysts). This feature is particularly helpful when you have resources that are interchangeable across projects.

The chart below depicts resource utilization vs. capacity by resource for the selected periods (days, weeks, months).

5. Ability to “Drill Down” to View Resource Utilization – From the resource availability views MS Project Server provides the ability to “drill down” to view the detail task assignments for a specific resource or group of resources. The resource assignment details provide resource and project managers with the information required to resolve specific “peaks” or “valleys” in resource utilization.

 

3 Critical Success Factors for Effective Resource Management

The following are 3 factors that are critical to realize the benefits of using MS Project Server for resource management within your project environment.

1. Resource Pool – Data captured in the resource pool must be defined and captured based upon the resource management needs of your organization. This success factor includes standard naming convention for resources, logical structure of the organization and team hierarchy, and meaningful definition of the project roles. These decisions drive how data is displayed within many of the resource management views.

2. Resource Capacity – The capacity line is driven from the Max Units % maintained for each resource. This percent must reflect the availability of the resource to be scheduled on the projects and operational activities maintained within the MS Project Server implementation. For example, if MS Project Server implementation does not include system support activities, then the Max Unit % should be reduced to reflect the time allocated to these activities for each resource. A process should be established for reviewing and updating this information on a regular basis (I recommend monthly or quarterly).

3. Resource Loaded Projects – The information associated with planned resource utilization on projects and operational activities is only as good as the accuracy and completeness of the resource loading within the individual project schedules. This is a very obvious statement, but I have seen many Enterprise Project Management implementations fail because the resource data within project schedules did not reflect reality. Coaching and mentoring of individual project managers is often required to ensure that project schedules are resource loaded and updated accurately throughout the project life cycle.

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Using MS Project to Set-up your Project for Success

Project managers that are not as familiar with using tools like MS Project to create a project schedule often “dive in head first” creating their project schedule. These project managers open a new file, start furiously loading project tasks, and the project schedule evolves as project planning progresses. After the project schedule baseline is established, and project execution begins, these project managers begin the weekly battle to maintain the project schedule in a manner that keeps it close to reflecting reality. Some of the telltale signs that your schedule is difficult to maintain include:

  • You change the dependency on a task and the dates do not change
  • You extend the duration and the work hours do not change
  • You add a new resource and the dates change unexpectedly
  • Your schedule shows people working on Thanksgiving and Christmas
  • Durations are displayed in hours, and work is displayed in minutes

I was working with a project manager whose schedule had become so difficult to maintain that he declared that his “tool had become compromised”. This created much frustration for the project manager, but the even worse result was that he was not sure that the milestone commitments established in the schedule were correct or achievable (and he did not know how to fix it).

Obviously, how well the WBS is organized has a significant impact on the ability to effectively and efficiently maintain the schedule throughout the project life cycle. In addition, there are several set-up activities within MS Project that allow the project manager to tailor the project schedule to meet their needs. Paying attention to these set-up activities when the project is first created allows you to better understand and control the behaviors within the schedule as you update the project schedule to reflect progress. The set-up tips described below include defining the project start date and project calendar, establishing default schedule options, and entering your project resources.

Defining Project Information

The first MS Project set-up feature I look at is Project Information. This feature establishes the start date for the project. This feature is also utilized to link the default project calendar to the project. If you are using MS Project Server, the project office has most likely established predefined project calendars. When using MS Project 2010, I generally start with the standard project calendar (see below for setting up the project calendar).

Setting up the Project Calendar

One of the most embarrassing things during a schedule review is when someone points out that you have scheduled resources to work on a holiday. That is why it is a best practice to early on tailor the calendar to accurately reflect your project environment. The project calendar is accessed from the function “Change Working Time”. This function provides the ability define non-working days (e.g., holidays). Again, if you are using MS Project Server, the non-working days are likely predefined on the project calendar you selected from the server configuration.

Setting up Schedule Defaults

One of the most important MS Project set-up functions (and also one of the most commonly overlooked) is Project Options. The Project Options lets you tailor many features based upon your personal preference, but the Schedule Options contains settings that will impact the day-to-day behavior within your project schedule. There are two primary components of the Schedule Options:

  • Calendar Options: These setting are used to define the work week (start and end of the week, hours / day, hours / week, and start and end of the work day). The calendar options may also be configured for specific project calendars.
  • Scheduling Default Settings: These options are utilized to define default settings associated with new tasks. I always recommend that durations are set-up as “days”, and work is set-up as “hours”. Unless there are special circumstances associated with your schedule, these are the most logic units of measure for managing the timeline and work effort. If you are creating a resource loaded project schedule, you should set up new tasks as effort driven. The option that seems to be confusing to project managers is the “task type”. The “task type” is utilized to define which task elements are updated when another element is updated (duration, hours, and resource unit allocations). The table below helps illustrate the update behavior associated with the different “task type” options. My personal preference is “fixed duration”. This option allows you to effectively control / manage the timeline (duration) when making updates to the schedule.

Note: Units refers to the % that a resource is allocated to the task. Fixed duration locks in the timeline and recalculates either units or work.

Defining Resources

Before getting too far into creating the schedule, it is important to define your resource pool in an organized manner. The following are the key elements associated with the resource pool:

  • Name – Use the standard naming convention for loading names in the schedule. It is important to be consistent.
  • Initials – Allows you to abbreviate the resource names for viewing in the schedule (takes up less space on specific views)
  • Group – Allows you to group the resources in a logical manner, either by organization or resource grouping. I generally use this field to define the different type of resources assigned to the project (e.g., project manager, business analyst, developer, QA).
  • Std. Rate – Defines the cost / hour for the resource. This is a key element for project budgeting purposes.
  • Max Units – Defines to what level the resource is working on the project. This is a key element used for resource leveling purposes.
  • Base Calendar – Establishes the working calendar that is used for this resource (may have specific resources with different work times).

If you are using MS Project Server to load projects into your project schedule, you select project resources associated with your project from the Global Resource Pool (vs. entering resources to create the project resource pool).

Note: This is a bit of a milestone on my blog – my 50th post. Hope you enjoy the content as much as I do creating it.